The problem of blockchain scalability requires solutions. One of them was the development of the concept of sharing on the Ethereum network, which entails the breakdown of network data into smaller sections, which are called shards. The shards contain their own packets of data, allowing them to essentially become distinct from others and thus work on strictly assigned sections of network information.
The application of sharding can help reduce network latency, as they free up more processing power from each network node. The nodes store and process all network data, and the ability to lessen the load on each will allow them to work more efficiently. If the nodes are responsible for processing simultaneously all network data, which can amount to hundreds of gigabytes, then they will be wasting computing power on redundant operations. Sharding cuts off duplicated data and allocates each node’s computing power to specific sections of data, eliminating process duplication.
The current system foresees vertical data processing. Sharding, on the other hand, allows nodes to work in horizontal scaling terms, thus increasing scalability and improving overall effectiveness and efficiency. The more rows in a horizontally scaled network, the greater its ability to grow and accommodate a larger number of Dapps and their users.
There were security concerns regarding sharing, especially the ability of attacks to take control of nodes and affect the network. However, integrated security layers ensure that compromised nodes are quickly isolated from the system and their data is relegated to secure nodes.